Pressure Vessels and Heat exchangers
 
A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to store gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air receivers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are diving cylinder, recompression chamber, distillation towers, autoclaves, and many other vessels in mining or oil refineries and petrochemical plants, nuclear reactor vessel, habitat of a space ship, habitat of a submarine, pneumatic reservoir, hydraulic reservoir under pressure, rail vehicle airbrake reservoir, road vehicle airbrake reservoir and storage vessels for liquefied gases such as ammonia, chlorine, propane, butane, and LPG.

Pressure vessels may theoretically be almost any shape, but shapes made of sections of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually employed. A common design is a cylinder with end caps called heads. Head shapes are frequently either hemispherical or dished (torispherical).
Storage Tank
Storage tanks are available in many shapes: vertical and horizontal cylindrical; open top and closed top; flat bottom, cone bottom, slope bottom and dish bottom. Large tanks tend to be vertical cylindrical, or to have rounded corners transition from vertical side wall to bottom profile, to easier withstand hydraulic hydrostatically induced pressure of contained liquid. Most container tanks for handling liquids during transportation are designed to handle varying degrees of pressure.
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Air Receivers
Air receiver tanks are designed to provide a supply buffer to meet short-term demand spikes that can exceed the compressor capacity. They also serve to dampen reciprocating compressor pulsations, separate out particles and liquids, and make the compressed air system easier to control. In some cases, installing a larger air receiver tank to meet occasional peak demands can even allow for the use of a smaller compressor.
Air receivers in compressed air systems serves the important purposes of:
  • Equalizing the pressure variation from the start/stop and modulating sequence of the compressor
  • Storage of air volume equalizing the variation in consumption and demand from the system
  • Collecting condensate and water in the air after the compressor
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Distillation Columns
Distillation is one of the unit operations of chemical engineering. Fractionating columns are widely used in the chemical process industries where large quantities of liquids have to be distilled. Such industries are the petroleum processing, petrochemical production, natural gas processing, coal tar processing, brewing, liquefied air separation, and hydrocarbon solvents production and similar industries but it finds its widest application in petroleum refineries. In such refineries, the crude oil feedstock is a very complex multicomponent mixture that must be separated and yields of pure chemical compounds are not expected, only groups of compounds within a relatively small range of boiling points, also called
fractions and that is the origin of the name fractional distillation or fractionation.
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Reactors
A chemical reactor is a device which is used to contain controlled chemical reactions. Reactions take place inside the reactor, in conditions which can be monitored and controlled for safety and efficiency. These types of reactors are used in the production of chemicals such as components of pharmaceutical compounds, and they can operate in several different ways. A number of scientific specialty companies produce chemical reactors and accessories such as replacement components for damaged devices.
Chemical reactors can be designed as either tanks or pipes, depending on the needs, and they can vary in size considerably.
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Heat Exchangers/Condensers
Heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required. A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc. These heat exchangers are typically used for high-pressure applications (with pressures greater than 30 bar and temperatures greater than 260°C).This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape.
There are several thermal design features that are to be taken into account when designing the tubes in the shell and tube heat exchangers.

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